|HSRP, Hot Standby Router Protocol|
|Protocol type:||Application layer protocol.|
|Port:||1985 (UDP) server.|
US Patent number 5,473,599 assigned to Cisco Systems, Inc.
HSRP packets are sent to multicast address 126.96.36.199 with the IP TTL field set to 1.
The Hot Standby Router Protocol, HSRP, provides a mechanism which is designed to support non-disruptive failover of IP traffic in certain circumstances. In particular, the protocol protects against the failure of the first hop router when the source host cannot learn the IP address of the first hop router dynamically. The protocol is designed for use over multi-access, multicast or broadcast capable LANs (e.g., Ethernet). HSRP is not intended as a replacement for existing dynamic router discovery mechanisms and those protocols should be used instead whenever possible. A large class of legacy host implementations that do not support dynamic discovery are capable of configuring a default router. HSRP provides failover services to those hosts.
Using HSRP, a set of routers work in concert to present the illusion of a single virtual router to the hosts on the LAN. This set is known as an HSRP group or a standby group. A single router elected from the group is responsible for forwarding the packets that hosts send to the virtual router. This router is known as the active router. Another router is elected as the standby router. In the event that the active router fails, the standby assumes the packet forwarding duties of the active router. Although an arbitrary number of routers may run HSRP, only the active router forwards the packets sent to the virtual router.
To minimize network traffic, only the active and the standby routers send periodic HSRP messages once the protocol has completed the election process. If the active router fails, the standby router takes over as the active router. If the standby router fails or becomes the active router, another router is elected as the standby router.
On a particular LAN, multiple hot standby groups may coexist and overlap. Each standby group emulates a single virtual router. For each standby group, a single well-known MAC address is allocated to the group, as well as an IP address. The IP address SHOULD belong to the primary subnet in use on the LAN, but MUST differ from the addresses allocated as interface addresses on all routers and hosts on the LAN, including virtual IP addresses assigned to other HSRP groups.
If multiple groups are used on a single LAN, load splitting can be achieved by distributing hosts among different standby groups.
|MAC header||IP header||UDP packet||HSRP packet|
|Virtual IP Address|
HSRP version number.
Opcode. 8 bits.
|0||Hello. The router is running and is capable of becoming the active or standby router.|
|1||Coup. The router wishes to become the active router.|
|2||Resign. The router no longer wishes to be the active router.|
This field describes the current state of the router sending the message.
|0||Initial. This is the starting state and indicates that HSRP is not running. This state is entered via a configuration change or when an interface first comes up.|
|1||Learn. The router has not determined the virtual IP address, and not yet seen an authenticated Hello message from the active router. In this state the router is still waiting to hear from the active router.|
|2||Listen. The router knows the virtual IP address, but is neither the active router nor the standby router. It listens for Hello messages from those routers.|
|4||Speak. The router sends periodic Hello messages and is actively participating in the election of the active and/or standby router. A router cannot enter Speak state unless it has the virtual IP address.|
|8||Standby. The router is a candidate to become the next active router and sends periodic Hello messages. Excluding transient conditions, there MUST be at most one router in the group in Standby state.|
|16||Active. The router is currently forwarding packets that are sent to the group's virtual MAC address. The router sends periodic Hello messages. Excluding transient conditions, there MUST be at most one router in Active state in the group.|
Default = 3 seconds.
This field is only meaningful in Hello messages. It contains the approximate period between the Hello messages that the router sends. The time is given in seconds. If the Hellotime is not configured on a router, then it MAY be learned from the Hello message from the active router. The Hellotime SHOULD only be learned if no Hellotime is configured and the Hello message is authenticated. A router that sends a Hello message MUST insert the Hellotime that it is using in the Hellotime field in the Hello message.
Default = 10 seconds.
This field is only meaningful in Hello messages. It contains the amount of time that the current Hello message should be considered valid. The time is given in seconds. If a router sends a Hello message, then receivers should consider that Hello message to be valid for one Holdtime. The Holdtime SHOULD be at least three times the value of the Hellotime and MUST be greater than the Hellotime. If the Holdtime is not configured on a router, then it MAY be learned from the Hello message from the active router. The Holdtime SHOULD only be learned if the Hello message is authenticated. A router that sends a Hello message MUST insert the Holdtime that it is using in the Holdtime field in the Hello message. A router which is in active state MUST NOT learn new values for the Hellotime and the Holdtime from other routers, although it may continue to use values which it learned from the previous active router. It MAY also use the Hellotime and Holdtime values learned through manual configuration. The active router MUST NOT use one configured time and one learned time.
This field is used to elect the active and standby routers. When comparing priorities of two different routers, the router with the numerically higher priority wins. In the case of routers with equal priority the router with the higher IP address wins.
This field identifies the standby group. For Token Ring, values between 0 and 2 inclusive are valid. For other media values between 0 and 255 inclusive are valid.
reserved. 8 bits.
This field contains a clear text 8 character reused password. If no authentication data is configured, the RECOMMENDED default value is 0x63 0x69 0x73 0x63 0x6F 0x00 0x00 0x00.
Virtual IP Address.
The virtual IP address used by this group. If the virtual IP address is not configured on a router, then it MAY be learned from the Hello message from the active router. An address SHOULD only be learned if no address was configured and the Hello message is authenticated.
[RFC 2281] Cisco Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP).